Karen Ray. This volume, authored by a noted psychotherapist with more than 30 years of experience in family violence, examines recent violent episodes perpetrated by young offenders in order to understand their root causes and to disseminate current prevention and treatment methods through a multidisciplinary lens. The book addresses th War, genocide, and death are cornerstones that define history.
Yet in the 21st century, we are experiencing violence in ways never seen before. It may be in worldwide terrorist organizations, inner city and suburban gangs, or the disturbed teenager next door who takes his rage out on innocent classmates. Those who commit violence today, as Kathryn Seifert, Ph. It is very difficult for a child to refuse the direct command of an adult. Kathryn Seifert, Ph. Kathryn Seifert has over 30 years experience as a psychotherapist.
Explicitand implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, — Thus, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of boulderers in RMNP in effort to establish a baseline understanding of their attitudes and perceptions of Leave No Trace—related practices. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews with key stakeholders e.
Respondents provided information about potential problem behaviors associated with bouldering, such as playing music through external speakers, stashing crash pads, impacting vegetation with crash pads, and leaving chalk tick marks. Attitudes were measured through several batteries of questions that examined perceived appropriateness, effectiveness, and difficulty associated with practicing Leave No Trace—related behaviors.
The attitudinal batteries included items related to the seven Leave No Trace Principles generally, and additional items related to bouldering specifically. The items related to the seven Leave No Trace Principles have been used in previous research see Lawhon et al. All of these statements are considered inappropriate behaviors under strict interpretation of Leave No Trace.
The perceived effectiveness of Leave No Trace practices in minimizing impact in RMNP was examined using 16 Likert-type behavior statements — considered appropriate behaviors as interpreted through the lens of Leave No Trace see Figure 3. Sampling was stratified by weekday and weekend at Chaos Canyon across 17 sampling periods, and at Emerald Lake through 15 sampling periods, each spanning from 10 a. Mean values for the statements suggesting support for Leave No Trace were above 5.
This implies further that the majority of respondents perceive Leave No Trace to be an important approach to minimizing recreationrelated impacts in RMNP. Moreover, the majority of respondents disagreed that Practicing Leave No Trace limits my freedom in the outdoors and that Practicing Leave No Trace is time consuming, indicating that Leave No Trace behaviors do not constrain the quality of outdoor recreation experiences. Attitudes toward Leave No Trace Recommended Practices Attitudes toward the appropriateness of the behaviors of interest were evaluated with nine boulderingspecific statements and four general Leave No Trace behavior statements Figure 2.
Attitudes toward appropriateness were found to be International Journal of Wilderness. The standard deviation for this item was also comparatively low, suggesting a higher level of agreement among respondents. This result is counter to what would be suggested of Leave No Trace-related recreation behaviors. Regarding appropriateness of Leave No Trace—related behaviors specific to bouldering, attitudes generally aligned with recommended practices. However, results indicated less con Moreover, the item Traveling off designated trails to access boulders resulted in a mean of 3. Furthermore, the standard deviation of 1.
Perceived Effectiveness To assess perceived effectiveness of Leave No Trace recommended practices, respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which certain behaviors would reduce impact while bouldering in RMNP Figure 3. Nine general Leave No Trace— related behavioral statements and seven items specific to minimum impact bouldering in RMNP were evaluated.
All of the general Leave No Trace items were perceived as slightly to highly effective with scale means ranging from 4. And the standard deviation of. Leave No Trace—related behaviors specific to bouldering in RMNP were also all perceived as slightly to highly effective. In this case scale means ranged from 4. Perceived Difficulty Respondents were provided the same set of behavioral statements as in the effectiveness measures, but instead asked to rate the difficulty of performing each behavior while bouldering in RMNP Figure 4. Alternatively, International Journal of Wilderness.
Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of boulderers in Rocky Mountain National Park to establish a baseline understanding of their attitudes toward Leave No Trace recommended practices.
These data provide insight into specific behaviors where attitudes align with Leave No Trace recommendations, and those practices specific to bouldering where attitudinal gaps exist. Results Overall, they reported positive perceptions of Leave No Trace and felt it is an important means of minimizing recreation-related impacts.
Wednesdays, pm and every other Saturday, 9 am- 5 pm: April 7, 21, May 5, 19, and June 2. It is symptomized by the abject fear of speaking any racial slur or making any reference to race, especially. A creative agency working in commercial, corporate private and special events. Change what you can and leave the rest alone From career management to brand partnerships, event production to marketing campaigns. My external accomplishments seemed possible only if there was someone to cheer, admire, and approve. It is very difficult for a child to refuse the direct command of an adult.
However, attitudes toward some boulderingspecific behaviors were less favorable and merit additional attention. These identified attitudinal gaps between bouldering practices and Leave No Trace recommendations, which advocate no or minimal site alterations, highlight opportunities to develop collaborative solutions for mitigating potentially impactful behaviors related to bouldering in the park.
It is recognized that bouldering, like all outdoor recreation activities, comes with an inherent set of impacts that in many cases are aesthetically obvious. Clearly boulderers should be conscious of these impacts and take measures to adopt practices that. However, it is important to recognize that many of these types of impacts are not entirely unique to bouldering.
In other words, bouldering is not unlike many recreation activities that take place in wilderness, in that there is an inherent tension between recreational pursuits and wilderness character. For example, anglers often create informal trails in order to access desirable fishing locations, equestrian use can cause trail impacts that lead to erosion which is well documented in the recreation ecology literature, and overnight campers clear vegetation.
With proactive interest to engage boulderers in the management process there is potential to develop specific minimum-impact practices associated with the activity. The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics along with other stakeholder groups are currently in the process of developing these messages and materials B. Lawhon, personal communication, May 26, Education and messaging efforts are being initiated in RMNP via signage, website, and direct ranger and park volunteer contact.
Park staff have also begun, and continue, to collaborate with external agencies and constituent groups in outreach efforts. Of note, International Journal of Wilderness.
This research suggests that park staff focus education and outreach efforts within the climbing gym industry. Finally, an important implication for wilderness stewardship is that the bouldering population tends to be composed primarily of a younger generation of users. It is important to not alienate this group of wilderness users but instead work with this community to help foster interest in wilderness protection amongst a new generation of wilderness stewards.
Conclusion Wilderness managers must understand the perceptions of growing user-groups, such as boulderers, in order to develop management strategies that promote the protection of resources while maintaining quality recreational opportunities. However, a number of bouldering-specific practices were identified to be less congruent with Leave No Trace recommendations, indicating that opportunities exist to improve messaging efforts.
Global perceptions of Leave No Trace were positive, suggesting that expansion of messaging and outreach specific to bouldering, in conjunction with the continued educational strategies currently promoted by the Leave No Trace Center and RMNP, could influence attitudes in a manner that better aligns with wilderness management objectives.
Specifically, messaging could be crafted that focuses on the effectiveness and lack of difficulty associated with the practices currently perceived by some as limiting to bouldering opportu Finally, these results provide baseline data regarding attitudes toward Leave No Trace behaviors, which perhaps after the implementation of additional education strategies specific to bouldering behaviors can be monitored over time in conjunction with ecological conditions, to assess trends related to this growing wilderness activity.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the staff at Rocky Mountain National Park and the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, as well as the key informants involved in the bouldering community for their support of this research.
Access Fund. Bouldering: Understanding and managing climbing on small rock formations.
Ajzen, I. From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior.
Kuhl and J. Beckman pp. Heidelberg, DE: Springer. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50 2 : — The theory of planned behaviour: Reactions and reflections. The influence of attitudes on behavior. In The Handbook of Attitudes, ed. Albarracin, B. Johnson, and M. Zanna, eds.
New York: Psychology Press. Cordell, A. Watson, R. Ghimire, and G. Journal of Forestry 3 : — Hammitt, W. Cole, and C. Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management. Lawhon, B. Newman, B. Taff, J. Vaske, W. Vagias, A. Bright, S. Lawson, and C. Journal of Interpretation Research 18 1 : 24— Manning, R. International Journal of Wilderness 9 1 : 20— Marion, J.
Leave No Trace in the Outdoors. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
Outdoor Industry Association. Outdoor Participation Report Pettebone, D. Rocky Mountain National Park: Wilderness after 35 years.